Aerodynamic Forces on Multiple Unit Trains in Cross Winds

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Colleges, School and Institutes


This paper describes the results of wind tunnel tests that were carried out to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of an electrical multiple unit (EMU) vehicle in a cross wind. The measurements were made on a 1/30 scale model of the Class 365 EMU in a simulation of the natural wind. The time histories of surface pressures were measured at a large number of points over the vehicle from which the aerodynamic characteristics and force coefficients were determined. This paper describes the complex fluctuating pressure field over the vehicle, through a consideration of the mean and fluctuating pressure coefficients and their spectra, and through a proper orthogonal decomposition analysis, which identifies the major modes of this distribution. The mean, fluctuating, and extreme aerodynamic side and lift forces are also discussed. It is shown that the flow pattern around the vehicle is dominated by large windward roof corner pressure fluctuations.


Original languageEnglish
Article number101103
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Fluids Engineering
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2009


  • wind, aerodynamics, pantographs, wind tunnels, external flows, pattern formation, electric locomotives