Acute exercise mobilises CD8+ T lymphocytes exhibiting an effector-memory phenotype

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Abstract

An acute bout of exercise evokes mobilisation of lymphocytes into the bloodstream, which can be largely attributed to increases in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8TLs) and Natural Killer (NK) cells. Evidence further suggests that, even within these lymphocyte subsets, there is preferential mobilisation of cells that share certain functional and phenotypic characteristics, such as high cytotoxicity, low proliferative ability, and high tissue migrating potential. These features are exhibited by effector-memory CD8TL subsets. The current study therefore investigated the effect of exercise on these newly-identified subsets. Thirteen healthy and physically active males (mean +/- SD: age 20.9 +/- 1.5 yr) attended three sessions: a control session (no exercise); cycling at 35% Watt (max) (low intensity exercise); and 85% Watt (max) (high intensity exercise). Each bout lasted 20 min. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, during the final min of exercise, and +15, and +60 min post-exercise. CD8TLs were classified into Nai ve, Central Memory (CM), Effector Memory (EM), and CD45RA+ Effector Memory (RAEM) using combinations of the cell surface markers CCR7, CD27, CD62L, CD57 and CD45RA. In parallel, the phenotypically distinct CD56(bright) 'regulatory' and CD56(dim) 'effector' NK subsets were quantified. The results show a strong differential mobilisation of CD8TL subsets (RAEM > EM > CM > Nai ve); during high intensity exercise, the greatest increase was observed for RAEM CD8Tls (+450%) and the smallest for Nai ve cells (+84%). Similarly, CD56(dim) NK cells (+995%) were mobilised to a greater extent than CD56(bright) (+153%) NK cells. In conclusion, memory CD8TL that exhibit a high effector and tissue-migrating potential are preferentially mobilised during exercise. This finding unifies a range of independent observations regarding exercise-induced phenotypic and functional changes in circulating lymphocytes. The selective mobilisation of cytotoxic tissue-migrating subsets, both within the NK and CD8TL population, may enhance immune-surveillance during exercise.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)767-75
Number of pages9
JournalBrain, Behaviour, and Immunity
Volume23
Issue number6
Early online date28 Feb 2009
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009

Keywords

  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CCR7, Natural killer cells, Exercise, CD27, Trafficking