Actions of Two Main Metabolites of Propiverine (M-1 and M-2) on Voltage-Dependent L-Type Ca2+ Currents and Ca2+ Transients in Murine Urinary Bladder Myocytes

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  • HL Zhu
  • M Aishima
  • A Shibata
  • JS Young
  • K Sueishi
  • N Teramoto

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Kyushu University


The anticholinergic propiverine (1-methyl-4-piperidyl diphenylpropoxyacetate), which is used for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome, has functionally active metabolites [M-1 (1-methyl-4-piperidyl diphenylpropoxyacetate N-oxide) and M-2 (1-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate N-oxide)], but the site of actions of these metabolites is uncertain. Propiverine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and is extensively biotransformed in the liver, giving rise to several active metabolites (M-1 and M-2). This study determines the effect of M-1 and M-2 on voltage-dependent nifedipine-sensitive inward Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) using patch-clamp techniques and fluorescent Ca(2+) imaging [after electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh)] in the murine urinary bladder. In conventional whole-cell recording, propiverine and M-1 but not M-2 inhibited the peak amplitude of I(Ca) in a concentration-dependent manner at a holding potential of -60 mV (propiverine, K(i) = 10 microM; M-1, K(i) = 118 microM). M-1 shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of I(Ca) to the left at -90 mV by 7 mV. Carbachol (CCh) reversibly inhibited I(Ca). This inhibition probably occurred through muscarinic type 3 receptors, coupling with G-proteins, because nanomolar concentrations of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine greatly reduced this inhibition, whereas pirenzepine or 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperdinyl]acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) at concentrations up to 1 microM was almost ineffective. In the presence of M-2, the CCh-induced inhibition of I(Ca) was blocked. In fluorescent Ca(2+) imaging, M-2 inhibited EFS-induced and ACh-induced Ca(2+) transients. These results suggest that M-1 acts, at least in part, as a Ca(2+) channel antagonist (as it inhibited I(Ca)), whereas M-2 has more direct antimuscarinic actions.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-127
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Issue number1
Early online date10 Oct 2007
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008