Abnormal microstructure in the weld zone of linear friction welded Ti–6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si titanium alloy joint and its influence on joint properties

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A detailed investigation on an unexpected abnormal microstructure formed near the weld line in the linear friction welded Ti–6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si titanium alloy joint had been performed. Microstructure observations with the help of optical microscope, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were conducted to determine the compositions and phases near the weld line. The results indicate that the abnormal microstructure may be obtained at a low friction pressure and consists of α phase in the form of spherical particles. Tensile strength and fracture characteristics were also examined to clarify the influence of α grains. It is found that the tensile strength is only about 49% of the parent material. The explanation to the formation of spherical α is that lamellar α breaks up, spheroidizes and coalesces to form bigger particles by squeezing out the softer intergranular β phase. The effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was also investigated to optimize the joint microstructure and mechanical properties. The results suggest that the defects still exist after PWHT, and consequently the appropriate process parameters should be used to achieve a good weld.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-45
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A
Early online date30 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2014


  • friction welding, titanium alloy, abnormal microstructure, annealing