A systematic review of levetiracetam versus phenytoin in the prevention of late post-traumatic seizures and survey of UK neurosurgical prescribing practice of antiepileptic medication in acute traumatic brain injury

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@article{d1cd68a1d14e424d8f9e45b044f6b1cb,
title = "A systematic review of levetiracetam versus phenytoin in the prevention of late post-traumatic seizures and survey of UK neurosurgical prescribing practice of antiepileptic medication in acute traumatic brain injury",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend 1 week of prophylactic phenytoin for post-traumatic seizures (PTS). Levetiracetam is gaining popularity as an alternative with a superior side-effect profile and may be suitable for extended use. We performed a systematic review comparing the efficacy of levetiracetam and phenytoin in reducing the incidence of late PTS. The secondary objectives were to compare their effects on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and length of stay. We also aimed to survey current prophylaxis prescribing practices.METHODS: A systematic review was performed using Medline, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane. Trials and observational studies comparing the efficacy of phenytoin and levetiracetam in the prevention of late PTS were included. A survey assessing prescribing practices was e-mailed to all consultant members of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons (n = 249) in March 2013.RESULTS: One randomised controlled trial (RCT) (52 patients) and a cohort study (19 patients) met our criteria. Neither found a significant difference in the incidence of late PTS or length of hospital stay, although the RCT showed an improvement in the GOS-E with levetiracetam. Of the 249 consultants included in the survey, 55 responded (22.1%). Prophylaxis was prescribed by 32 consultants (58%), of whom 21 (65.6%) chose phenytoin, 7 (21.9%) chose levetiracetam, 3 (9.4%) chose valproate and 1 (3%) chose 'other'. Half indicated they would prescribe prophylaxis for 1 week, the remainder opting for extended use.CONCLUSION: While our review found no evidence of a difference in late seizure incidence, there is evidence of improved long-term outcomes with levetiracetam. Neither study used an extended course of levetiracetam or continuous electroencephalography. Further research which accounts for these factors is required for the development of guidelines which take levetiracetam into account. Our survey showed a lack of awareness of the potential harms of extended phenytoin use and a move towards levetiracetam.",
keywords = "Adult, Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use, Brain Injuries, Traumatic/drug therapy, Cohort Studies, Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control, Female, Health Surveys, Humans, Levetiracetam, Neurosurgeons, Phenytoin/therapeutic use, Piracetam/analogs & derivatives, Practice Patterns, Physicians', Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic",
author = "Ahmed Bakr and Antonio Belli",
year = "2018",
month = jun,
doi = "10.1080/02688697.2018.1464118",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "237--244",
journal = "British Journal of Neurosurgery",
issn = "0268-8697",
publisher = "Taylor & Francis",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A systematic review of levetiracetam versus phenytoin in the prevention of late post-traumatic seizures and survey of UK neurosurgical prescribing practice of antiepileptic medication in acute traumatic brain injury

AU - Bakr, Ahmed

AU - Belli, Antonio

PY - 2018/6

Y1 - 2018/6

N2 - BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend 1 week of prophylactic phenytoin for post-traumatic seizures (PTS). Levetiracetam is gaining popularity as an alternative with a superior side-effect profile and may be suitable for extended use. We performed a systematic review comparing the efficacy of levetiracetam and phenytoin in reducing the incidence of late PTS. The secondary objectives were to compare their effects on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and length of stay. We also aimed to survey current prophylaxis prescribing practices.METHODS: A systematic review was performed using Medline, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane. Trials and observational studies comparing the efficacy of phenytoin and levetiracetam in the prevention of late PTS were included. A survey assessing prescribing practices was e-mailed to all consultant members of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons (n = 249) in March 2013.RESULTS: One randomised controlled trial (RCT) (52 patients) and a cohort study (19 patients) met our criteria. Neither found a significant difference in the incidence of late PTS or length of hospital stay, although the RCT showed an improvement in the GOS-E with levetiracetam. Of the 249 consultants included in the survey, 55 responded (22.1%). Prophylaxis was prescribed by 32 consultants (58%), of whom 21 (65.6%) chose phenytoin, 7 (21.9%) chose levetiracetam, 3 (9.4%) chose valproate and 1 (3%) chose 'other'. Half indicated they would prescribe prophylaxis for 1 week, the remainder opting for extended use.CONCLUSION: While our review found no evidence of a difference in late seizure incidence, there is evidence of improved long-term outcomes with levetiracetam. Neither study used an extended course of levetiracetam or continuous electroencephalography. Further research which accounts for these factors is required for the development of guidelines which take levetiracetam into account. Our survey showed a lack of awareness of the potential harms of extended phenytoin use and a move towards levetiracetam.

AB - BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend 1 week of prophylactic phenytoin for post-traumatic seizures (PTS). Levetiracetam is gaining popularity as an alternative with a superior side-effect profile and may be suitable for extended use. We performed a systematic review comparing the efficacy of levetiracetam and phenytoin in reducing the incidence of late PTS. The secondary objectives were to compare their effects on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and length of stay. We also aimed to survey current prophylaxis prescribing practices.METHODS: A systematic review was performed using Medline, Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane. Trials and observational studies comparing the efficacy of phenytoin and levetiracetam in the prevention of late PTS were included. A survey assessing prescribing practices was e-mailed to all consultant members of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons (n = 249) in March 2013.RESULTS: One randomised controlled trial (RCT) (52 patients) and a cohort study (19 patients) met our criteria. Neither found a significant difference in the incidence of late PTS or length of hospital stay, although the RCT showed an improvement in the GOS-E with levetiracetam. Of the 249 consultants included in the survey, 55 responded (22.1%). Prophylaxis was prescribed by 32 consultants (58%), of whom 21 (65.6%) chose phenytoin, 7 (21.9%) chose levetiracetam, 3 (9.4%) chose valproate and 1 (3%) chose 'other'. Half indicated they would prescribe prophylaxis for 1 week, the remainder opting for extended use.CONCLUSION: While our review found no evidence of a difference in late seizure incidence, there is evidence of improved long-term outcomes with levetiracetam. Neither study used an extended course of levetiracetam or continuous electroencephalography. Further research which accounts for these factors is required for the development of guidelines which take levetiracetam into account. Our survey showed a lack of awareness of the potential harms of extended phenytoin use and a move towards levetiracetam.

KW - Adult

KW - Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use

KW - Brain Injuries, Traumatic/drug therapy

KW - Cohort Studies

KW - Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control

KW - Female

KW - Health Surveys

KW - Humans

KW - Levetiracetam

KW - Neurosurgeons

KW - Phenytoin/therapeutic use

KW - Piracetam/analogs & derivatives

KW - Practice Patterns, Physicians'

KW - Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

U2 - 10.1080/02688697.2018.1464118

DO - 10.1080/02688697.2018.1464118

M3 - Review article

C2 - 29688078

VL - 32

SP - 237

EP - 244

JO - British Journal of Neurosurgery

JF - British Journal of Neurosurgery

SN - 0268-8697

IS - 3

ER -