A nuclear-replicating viroid antagonizes infectivity and accumulation of a geminivirus by upregulating methylation-related genes and inducing hypermethylation of viral DNA

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A nuclear-replicating viroid antagonizes infectivity and accumulation of a geminivirus by upregulating methylation-related genes and inducing hypermethylation of viral DNA. / Torchetti, Enza Maria; Pegoraro, Mattia; Navarro, Beatriz; Catoni, Marco; Di Serio, Francesco; Noris, Emanuela.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, 35101, 14.10.2016.

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@article{dcbe07ec57bf4946abb80a7f1a1b5461,
title = "A nuclear-replicating viroid antagonizes infectivity and accumulation of a geminivirus by upregulating methylation-related genes and inducing hypermethylation of viral DNA",
abstract = "DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing play critical roles in controlling infection of single-stranded (ss) DNA geminiviruses and ssRNA viroids, respectively, but both pathogens can counteract these host defense mechanisms and promote their infectivity. Moreover, a specific role of DNA methylation in viroid-host interactions is not yet confirmed. Here, using an experimental system where two nuclear-replicating agents, the geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), co-infect their common host tomato, we observed that PSTVd severely interferes with TYLCSV infectivity and accumulation, most likely as a consequence of strong activation of host DNA methylation pathways. In fact, PSTVd alone or in co-infection with TYLCSV significantly upregulates the expression of key genes governing DNA methylation in plants. Using methylation-sensitive restriction and bisulfite conversion assays, we further showed that PSTVd infection promotes a strong hypermethylation of TYLCSV DNA, thus supporting a mechanistic link with the antagonism of the viroid on the virus in co-infected tomato plants. These results describe the interaction between two nuclear-replicating pathogens and show that they differentially interfere with DNA methylation pathways.",
keywords = "Cell Nucleus/virology, DNA Methylation, DNA Replication, DNA, Viral/biosynthesis, Geminiviridae/growth & development, Lycopersicon esculentum/virology, Viral Interference, Viroids/growth & development",
author = "Torchetti, {Enza Maria} and Mattia Pegoraro and Beatriz Navarro and Marco Catoni and {Di Serio}, Francesco and Emanuela Noris",
year = "2016",
month = oct,
day = "14",
doi = "10.1038/srep35101",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A nuclear-replicating viroid antagonizes infectivity and accumulation of a geminivirus by upregulating methylation-related genes and inducing hypermethylation of viral DNA

AU - Torchetti, Enza Maria

AU - Pegoraro, Mattia

AU - Navarro, Beatriz

AU - Catoni, Marco

AU - Di Serio, Francesco

AU - Noris, Emanuela

PY - 2016/10/14

Y1 - 2016/10/14

N2 - DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing play critical roles in controlling infection of single-stranded (ss) DNA geminiviruses and ssRNA viroids, respectively, but both pathogens can counteract these host defense mechanisms and promote their infectivity. Moreover, a specific role of DNA methylation in viroid-host interactions is not yet confirmed. Here, using an experimental system where two nuclear-replicating agents, the geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), co-infect their common host tomato, we observed that PSTVd severely interferes with TYLCSV infectivity and accumulation, most likely as a consequence of strong activation of host DNA methylation pathways. In fact, PSTVd alone or in co-infection with TYLCSV significantly upregulates the expression of key genes governing DNA methylation in plants. Using methylation-sensitive restriction and bisulfite conversion assays, we further showed that PSTVd infection promotes a strong hypermethylation of TYLCSV DNA, thus supporting a mechanistic link with the antagonism of the viroid on the virus in co-infected tomato plants. These results describe the interaction between two nuclear-replicating pathogens and show that they differentially interfere with DNA methylation pathways.

AB - DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing play critical roles in controlling infection of single-stranded (ss) DNA geminiviruses and ssRNA viroids, respectively, but both pathogens can counteract these host defense mechanisms and promote their infectivity. Moreover, a specific role of DNA methylation in viroid-host interactions is not yet confirmed. Here, using an experimental system where two nuclear-replicating agents, the geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), co-infect their common host tomato, we observed that PSTVd severely interferes with TYLCSV infectivity and accumulation, most likely as a consequence of strong activation of host DNA methylation pathways. In fact, PSTVd alone or in co-infection with TYLCSV significantly upregulates the expression of key genes governing DNA methylation in plants. Using methylation-sensitive restriction and bisulfite conversion assays, we further showed that PSTVd infection promotes a strong hypermethylation of TYLCSV DNA, thus supporting a mechanistic link with the antagonism of the viroid on the virus in co-infected tomato plants. These results describe the interaction between two nuclear-replicating pathogens and show that they differentially interfere with DNA methylation pathways.

KW - Cell Nucleus/virology

KW - DNA Methylation

KW - DNA Replication

KW - DNA, Viral/biosynthesis

KW - Geminiviridae/growth & development

KW - Lycopersicon esculentum/virology

KW - Viral Interference

KW - Viroids/growth & development

U2 - 10.1038/srep35101

DO - 10.1038/srep35101

M3 - Article

C2 - 27739453

VL - 6

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

M1 - 35101

ER -