A novel technique for ice crystal visualization in frozen solids using X-ray micro-computed tomography

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
  • University of Birmingham
  • Department of Chemical Engineering


A novel technique, using an X-ray micro-computed tomography system (X-ray micro-CT system) has been developed for visualization of the two- (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) ice crystal structures formed during freezing. The system reconstructs all 3-D images based on a set of 2-D images obtained by multiple slicing of an X-ray shadow image. This study demonstrates the capability of the technique to characterize the ice crystal microstructure of mycoprotein products after freezing. Results are presented for the 2-D ice crystals formed within mycoprotein frozen at different rates. The method requires freeze-drying of the sample to remove frozen water before scanning to indicate ice crystal and internal structure of the material at a depth of 1 cm. The dendrite spacing of ice crystals has been related to the freezing conditions of the material.


Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Food Science
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2005


  • Freezing, Ice crystal, Mycoprotein, Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray micro-tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas