A novel mixed living high training low intervention and the hematological module of the athlete biological passport

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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A novel mixed living high training low intervention and the hematological module of the athlete biological passport. / Voss, Sven; Al-Hamad, Khalifa; Samsam, Waseem; Cherif, Anissa; Georgakopoulos, Costas; Al Maadheed, Mohammed; Balanos, George; Lucas, Sam; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Wilson, Mathew; Townsend, Nathan.

In: Drug Testing and Analysis, Vol. 12, No. 3, 03.2020, p. 323-330.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Voss, S, Al-Hamad, K, Samsam, W, Cherif, A, Georgakopoulos, C, Al Maadheed, M, Balanos, G, Lucas, S, Sottas, P-E, Wilson, M & Townsend, N 2020, 'A novel mixed living high training low intervention and the hematological module of the athlete biological passport', Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 323-330. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2723

APA

Voss, S., Al-Hamad, K., Samsam, W., Cherif, A., Georgakopoulos, C., Al Maadheed, M., Balanos, G., Lucas, S., Sottas, P-E., Wilson, M., & Townsend, N. (2020). A novel mixed living high training low intervention and the hematological module of the athlete biological passport. Drug Testing and Analysis, 12(3), 323-330. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2723

Vancouver

Author

Voss, Sven ; Al-Hamad, Khalifa ; Samsam, Waseem ; Cherif, Anissa ; Georgakopoulos, Costas ; Al Maadheed, Mohammed ; Balanos, George ; Lucas, Sam ; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard ; Wilson, Mathew ; Townsend, Nathan. / A novel mixed living high training low intervention and the hematological module of the athlete biological passport. In: Drug Testing and Analysis. 2020 ; Vol. 12, No. 3. pp. 323-330.

Bibtex

@article{7f26de8d56ea4e96a0bf0f9358c2a0cc,
title = "A novel mixed living high training low intervention and the hematological module of the athlete biological passport",
abstract = "Exposure to either natural or simulated hypoxia induces hematological adaptations that may affect the parameters of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a novel, mixed hypoxic dose protocol on the likelihood of producing an atypical ABP finding. Ten well-trained middle-distance runners participated in a “live high, train low and high” (LHTLH) altitude training camp for 14 days. The participants spent ˜6 hr.d-1 at 3000–5400 m during waking hours and ˜10 h.d-1 overnight at 2400–3000 m simulated altitude. Venous blood samples were collected before (B0), and after 1 (D1), 4 (D4), 7 (D7), and 14 (D14) days of hypoxic exposure, and again 14 days post exposure (P14). Samples were analyzed for key parameters of the ABP including reticulocyte percentage (Ret%), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and the OFF-score. The ABP adaptive model was administered at a specificity of 99% to test for atypical findings. We found significant changes in [Hb] and Ret% during the hypoxic intervention. Consequently, this led to ABP threshold deviations at 99% specificity in three participants. Only one of these was flagged as an “atypical passport finding” (ATPF) due to deviation of the OFF-score. When this sample was evaluated by ABP experts it was considered “normal”. In conclusion, it is highly unlikely that the present hypoxic exposure protocol would have led to a citation for a doping violation according to WADA guidelines.",
keywords = "altitude, athlete biological passport, hematological module, hypoxia",
author = "Sven Voss and Khalifa Al-Hamad and Waseem Samsam and Anissa Cherif and Costas Georgakopoulos and {Al Maadheed}, Mohammed and George Balanos and Sam Lucas and Pierre-Edouard Sottas and Mathew Wilson and Nathan Townsend",
year = "2020",
month = mar,
doi = "10.1002/dta.2723",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "323--330",
journal = "Drug Testing and Analysis",
issn = "1942-7603",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel mixed living high training low intervention and the hematological module of the athlete biological passport

AU - Voss, Sven

AU - Al-Hamad, Khalifa

AU - Samsam, Waseem

AU - Cherif, Anissa

AU - Georgakopoulos, Costas

AU - Al Maadheed, Mohammed

AU - Balanos, George

AU - Lucas, Sam

AU - Sottas, Pierre-Edouard

AU - Wilson, Mathew

AU - Townsend, Nathan

PY - 2020/3

Y1 - 2020/3

N2 - Exposure to either natural or simulated hypoxia induces hematological adaptations that may affect the parameters of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a novel, mixed hypoxic dose protocol on the likelihood of producing an atypical ABP finding. Ten well-trained middle-distance runners participated in a “live high, train low and high” (LHTLH) altitude training camp for 14 days. The participants spent ˜6 hr.d-1 at 3000–5400 m during waking hours and ˜10 h.d-1 overnight at 2400–3000 m simulated altitude. Venous blood samples were collected before (B0), and after 1 (D1), 4 (D4), 7 (D7), and 14 (D14) days of hypoxic exposure, and again 14 days post exposure (P14). Samples were analyzed for key parameters of the ABP including reticulocyte percentage (Ret%), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and the OFF-score. The ABP adaptive model was administered at a specificity of 99% to test for atypical findings. We found significant changes in [Hb] and Ret% during the hypoxic intervention. Consequently, this led to ABP threshold deviations at 99% specificity in three participants. Only one of these was flagged as an “atypical passport finding” (ATPF) due to deviation of the OFF-score. When this sample was evaluated by ABP experts it was considered “normal”. In conclusion, it is highly unlikely that the present hypoxic exposure protocol would have led to a citation for a doping violation according to WADA guidelines.

AB - Exposure to either natural or simulated hypoxia induces hematological adaptations that may affect the parameters of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a novel, mixed hypoxic dose protocol on the likelihood of producing an atypical ABP finding. Ten well-trained middle-distance runners participated in a “live high, train low and high” (LHTLH) altitude training camp for 14 days. The participants spent ˜6 hr.d-1 at 3000–5400 m during waking hours and ˜10 h.d-1 overnight at 2400–3000 m simulated altitude. Venous blood samples were collected before (B0), and after 1 (D1), 4 (D4), 7 (D7), and 14 (D14) days of hypoxic exposure, and again 14 days post exposure (P14). Samples were analyzed for key parameters of the ABP including reticulocyte percentage (Ret%), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and the OFF-score. The ABP adaptive model was administered at a specificity of 99% to test for atypical findings. We found significant changes in [Hb] and Ret% during the hypoxic intervention. Consequently, this led to ABP threshold deviations at 99% specificity in three participants. Only one of these was flagged as an “atypical passport finding” (ATPF) due to deviation of the OFF-score. When this sample was evaluated by ABP experts it was considered “normal”. In conclusion, it is highly unlikely that the present hypoxic exposure protocol would have led to a citation for a doping violation according to WADA guidelines.

KW - altitude

KW - athlete biological passport

KW - hematological module

KW - hypoxia

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85077870434&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/dta.2723

DO - 10.1002/dta.2723

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 323

EP - 330

JO - Drug Testing and Analysis

JF - Drug Testing and Analysis

SN - 1942-7603

IS - 3

ER -