A new classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions - Introduction and key changes from the 1999 classification

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Jack G. Caton
  • Gary Armitage
  • Tord Berglundh
  • Søren Jepsen
  • Kenneth S. Kornman
  • Brian L. Mealey
  • Panos N. Papapanou
  • Mariano Sanz
  • Maurizio S. Tonetti

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Periodontics; Eastman Institute for Oral Health; University of Rochester; Rochester NY USA
  • Orofacial Sciences; School of Dentistry; University of California San Francisco; USA
  • Department of Periodontology; Institute of Odontology; Sahlgrenska Academy; University of Gothenburg; Gothenburg Sweden
  • Periodontal Research Group; Institute of Clinical Sciences; College of Medical & Dental Sciences; University of Birmingham; UK
  • Department of Periodontology, Operative and Preventive Dentistry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
  • Faculty Affairs and Institutional Effectiveness (Informatics), University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
  • University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.
  • Columbia University; College of Dental Medicine; New York NY USA
  • Facultad de Odontologia; Universidad Complutense Madrid; Madrid Spain
  • Periodontology; Faculty of Dentistry; University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong SAR China


A classification scheme for periodontal and peri‐implant diseases and conditions is necessary for clinicians to properly diagnose and treat patients as well as for scientists to investigate etiology, pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment of the diseases and conditions. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri‐implant Diseases and Conditions. The workshop was co‐sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) and included expert participants from all over the world. Planning for the conference, which was held in Chicago on November 9 to 11, 2017, began in early 2015.

An organizing committee from the AAP and EFP commissioned 19 review papers and four consensus reports covering relevant areas in periodontology and implant dentistry. The authors were charged with updating the 1999 classification of periodontal diseases and conditions1 and developing a similar scheme for peri‐implant diseases and conditions. Reviewers and workgroups were also asked to establish pertinent case definitions and to provide diagnostic criteria to aid clinicians in the use of the new classification. All findings and recommendations of the workshop were agreed to by consensus.

This introductory paper presents an overview for the new classification of periodontal and peri‐implant diseases and conditions, along with a condensed scheme for each of four workgroup sections, but readers are directed to the pertinent consensus reports and review papers for a thorough discussion of the rationale, criteria, and interpretation of the proposed classification. Changes to the 1999 classification are highlighted and discussed. Although the intent of the workshop was to base classification on the strongest available scientific evidence, lower level evidence and expert opinion were inevitably used whenever sufficient research data were unavailable.

The scope of this workshop was to align and update the classification scheme to the current understanding of periodontal and peri‐implant diseases and conditions. This introductory overview presents the schematic tables for the new classification of periodontal and peri‐implant diseases and conditions and briefly highlights changes made to the 1999 classification.1 It cannot present the wealth of information included in the reviews, case definition papers, and consensus reports that has guided the development of the new classification, and reference to the consensus and case definition papers is necessary to provide a thorough understanding of its use for either case management or scientific investigation. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the reader use this overview as an introduction to these subjects. Accessing this publication online will allow the reader to use the links in this overview and the tables to view the source papers (Table 1).


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S1-S8
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2018


  • Classification, Gingivitis, Peri-implant mucositis, Peri-implantitis, Periodontal diseases, Periodontitis