A meta-analysis of factors influencing concentrations of brominated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in indoor dust

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A meta-analysis of factors influencing concentrations of brominated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in indoor dust. / Al-Omran, Layla Salih; Harrad, Stuart; Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed.

In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 285, 117262, 15.09.2021.

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@article{e9fe295c1c7843fdb4820c37244a46b0,
title = "A meta-analysis of factors influencing concentrations of brominated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in indoor dust",
abstract = "Current assessments of human exposure to flame retardants (FRs) via dust ingestion rely on measurements of FR concentrations in dust samples collected at specific points in time and space. Such exposure assessments are rendered further uncertain by the possibility of within-room and within-building spatial and temporal variability, differences in dust particle size fraction analysed, as well as differences in dust sampling approach. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data was undertaken to evaluate the impact of these factors on reported concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) in dust and subsequent human exposure estimates. Except for a few cases, concentrations of FRs in elevated surface dust (ESD) exceeded significantly those in floor dust (FD). The implications of this for exposure assessment are not entirely clear. However, they imply that analysing FD only will underestimate exposure for adults who likely rarely ingest floor dust, while analysing ESD only would overestimate exposure for toddlers who likely rarely ingest elevated surface dust. Considerable within-building spatial variability was observed with no specific trend between concentrations of either BFRs or OPEs in living rooms and bedrooms in the same homes, implying that exposure assessments based solely on sampling one room are uncertain. Substantial differences in FR concentrations were observed in different particle size fractions of dust. This is likely partly attributable to the presence of abraded polymer particles/fibres with high FR concentrations in larger particle size fractions. This has implications for exposure assessment as adherence to skin and subsequent FR uptake via ingestion and dermal sorption varies with particle size. Analysing dust samples obtained from a householder vacuum cleaner (HHVC) compared with researcher collected dust (RCD) will underestimate human exposure to the most of studied contaminants. This is likely due to the losses of volatile FRs from HHVC dust over the extended period such dust spends in the dust bag. Temporal variability in FR concentrations is apparent during month-to-month or seasonal monitoring, with such variability likely due more to changes in room contents rather than seasonal temperature variation.",
keywords = "BFRs, Exposure assessment, Indoor dust, OPEs",
author = "Al-Omran, {Layla Salih} and Stuart Harrad and {Abou-Elwafa Abdallah}, Mohamed",
note = "Funding Information: We are grateful to the authors of the original studies included in this meta-analysis, particularly who provided us with the raw data. Layla Salih Al-Omran acknowledges the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research for the research leave based on the ministerial directive no. 29685 on November 11, 2019, University of Basrah for the research scholarship based on the university directive no. 7/17/28946 on December 8, 2019 and the School of Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK for the academic visitor invitation. Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2021 Elsevier Ltd",
year = "2021",
month = sep,
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117262",
language = "English",
volume = "285",
journal = "Environmental Pollution",
issn = "0269-7491",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A meta-analysis of factors influencing concentrations of brominated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in indoor dust

AU - Al-Omran, Layla Salih

AU - Harrad, Stuart

AU - Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed

N1 - Funding Information: We are grateful to the authors of the original studies included in this meta-analysis, particularly who provided us with the raw data. Layla Salih Al-Omran acknowledges the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research for the research leave based on the ministerial directive no. 29685 on November 11, 2019, University of Basrah for the research scholarship based on the university directive no. 7/17/28946 on December 8, 2019 and the School of Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK for the academic visitor invitation. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

PY - 2021/9/15

Y1 - 2021/9/15

N2 - Current assessments of human exposure to flame retardants (FRs) via dust ingestion rely on measurements of FR concentrations in dust samples collected at specific points in time and space. Such exposure assessments are rendered further uncertain by the possibility of within-room and within-building spatial and temporal variability, differences in dust particle size fraction analysed, as well as differences in dust sampling approach. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data was undertaken to evaluate the impact of these factors on reported concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) in dust and subsequent human exposure estimates. Except for a few cases, concentrations of FRs in elevated surface dust (ESD) exceeded significantly those in floor dust (FD). The implications of this for exposure assessment are not entirely clear. However, they imply that analysing FD only will underestimate exposure for adults who likely rarely ingest floor dust, while analysing ESD only would overestimate exposure for toddlers who likely rarely ingest elevated surface dust. Considerable within-building spatial variability was observed with no specific trend between concentrations of either BFRs or OPEs in living rooms and bedrooms in the same homes, implying that exposure assessments based solely on sampling one room are uncertain. Substantial differences in FR concentrations were observed in different particle size fractions of dust. This is likely partly attributable to the presence of abraded polymer particles/fibres with high FR concentrations in larger particle size fractions. This has implications for exposure assessment as adherence to skin and subsequent FR uptake via ingestion and dermal sorption varies with particle size. Analysing dust samples obtained from a householder vacuum cleaner (HHVC) compared with researcher collected dust (RCD) will underestimate human exposure to the most of studied contaminants. This is likely due to the losses of volatile FRs from HHVC dust over the extended period such dust spends in the dust bag. Temporal variability in FR concentrations is apparent during month-to-month or seasonal monitoring, with such variability likely due more to changes in room contents rather than seasonal temperature variation.

AB - Current assessments of human exposure to flame retardants (FRs) via dust ingestion rely on measurements of FR concentrations in dust samples collected at specific points in time and space. Such exposure assessments are rendered further uncertain by the possibility of within-room and within-building spatial and temporal variability, differences in dust particle size fraction analysed, as well as differences in dust sampling approach. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data was undertaken to evaluate the impact of these factors on reported concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) in dust and subsequent human exposure estimates. Except for a few cases, concentrations of FRs in elevated surface dust (ESD) exceeded significantly those in floor dust (FD). The implications of this for exposure assessment are not entirely clear. However, they imply that analysing FD only will underestimate exposure for adults who likely rarely ingest floor dust, while analysing ESD only would overestimate exposure for toddlers who likely rarely ingest elevated surface dust. Considerable within-building spatial variability was observed with no specific trend between concentrations of either BFRs or OPEs in living rooms and bedrooms in the same homes, implying that exposure assessments based solely on sampling one room are uncertain. Substantial differences in FR concentrations were observed in different particle size fractions of dust. This is likely partly attributable to the presence of abraded polymer particles/fibres with high FR concentrations in larger particle size fractions. This has implications for exposure assessment as adherence to skin and subsequent FR uptake via ingestion and dermal sorption varies with particle size. Analysing dust samples obtained from a householder vacuum cleaner (HHVC) compared with researcher collected dust (RCD) will underestimate human exposure to the most of studied contaminants. This is likely due to the losses of volatile FRs from HHVC dust over the extended period such dust spends in the dust bag. Temporal variability in FR concentrations is apparent during month-to-month or seasonal monitoring, with such variability likely due more to changes in room contents rather than seasonal temperature variation.

KW - BFRs

KW - Exposure assessment

KW - Indoor dust

KW - OPEs

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85105288124&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117262

DO - 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117262

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:85105288124

VL - 285

JO - Environmental Pollution

JF - Environmental Pollution

SN - 0269-7491

M1 - 117262

ER -