A critical review of human exposure to organophosphate esters with a focus on dietary intake

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A critical review of human exposure to organophosphate esters with a focus on dietary intake. / Gbadamosi, Muideen Remilekun; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 771, 144752, 01.06.2021.

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@article{20d6e0f992f648c6b7934f0ad7b6ff5a,
title = "A critical review of human exposure to organophosphate esters with a focus on dietary intake",
abstract = "Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are common additives in a wide range of commercial and industrial products. Elevated and prolonged exposure to OPEs may induce several adverse effects. This is concerning as they are ubiquitous in air, indoor dust, drinking water, and other environmental matrices. However, information on the presence of OPEs in foodstuffs and consequent health risks remains scant. This review critically evaluates available information on levels and sources of OPEs in food, discusses the relative significance of diet as a pathway of human exposure, identifies knowledge gaps, and suggests directions for future research. For toddlers, dermal uptake from dust ingestion appears the predominant pathway of exposure to chlorinated OPEs, as well as ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). In contrast, diet appears the main pathway of exposure to all eight OPEs considered for adults, and for tri n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP), and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) for toddlers. While summed exposures via all pathways are within reference dose (RfD) values, they do not include high-end exposure estimates, and for highly-exposed individuals, the margin between exposure and RfD values is smaller. Moreover, our exposure estimates are based on a meta-analysis of multiple exposure assessments conducted over a range of points in space and time. There is an urgent need for assessments of human exposure to OPEs that examine all relevant pathways in a spatially and temporally-consistent fashion. Given food is an important exposure pathway to OPEs, regular monitoring of their presence as well as their metabolites (that may have toxicological significance) in foodstuffs is recommended. While dermal uptake from indoor dust appears an important human exposure pathway, no evaluations exist of exposure via dermal uptake from OPE-containing products such as foam-filled furniture. This review also highlights very few data exist on OPEs in drinking water.",
keywords = "Organophosphate esters, Foodstuffs, Indoor dust, Indoor air, Drinking water, Dermal uptake",
author = "Gbadamosi, {Muideen Remilekun} and Abdallah, {Mohamed Abou-Elwafa} and Stuart Harrad",
note = "Copyright {\textcopyright} 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.",
year = "2021",
month = jun,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144752",
language = "English",
volume = "771",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A critical review of human exposure to organophosphate esters with a focus on dietary intake

AU - Gbadamosi, Muideen Remilekun

AU - Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa

AU - Harrad, Stuart

N1 - Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PY - 2021/6/1

Y1 - 2021/6/1

N2 - Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are common additives in a wide range of commercial and industrial products. Elevated and prolonged exposure to OPEs may induce several adverse effects. This is concerning as they are ubiquitous in air, indoor dust, drinking water, and other environmental matrices. However, information on the presence of OPEs in foodstuffs and consequent health risks remains scant. This review critically evaluates available information on levels and sources of OPEs in food, discusses the relative significance of diet as a pathway of human exposure, identifies knowledge gaps, and suggests directions for future research. For toddlers, dermal uptake from dust ingestion appears the predominant pathway of exposure to chlorinated OPEs, as well as ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). In contrast, diet appears the main pathway of exposure to all eight OPEs considered for adults, and for tri n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP), and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) for toddlers. While summed exposures via all pathways are within reference dose (RfD) values, they do not include high-end exposure estimates, and for highly-exposed individuals, the margin between exposure and RfD values is smaller. Moreover, our exposure estimates are based on a meta-analysis of multiple exposure assessments conducted over a range of points in space and time. There is an urgent need for assessments of human exposure to OPEs that examine all relevant pathways in a spatially and temporally-consistent fashion. Given food is an important exposure pathway to OPEs, regular monitoring of their presence as well as their metabolites (that may have toxicological significance) in foodstuffs is recommended. While dermal uptake from indoor dust appears an important human exposure pathway, no evaluations exist of exposure via dermal uptake from OPE-containing products such as foam-filled furniture. This review also highlights very few data exist on OPEs in drinking water.

AB - Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are common additives in a wide range of commercial and industrial products. Elevated and prolonged exposure to OPEs may induce several adverse effects. This is concerning as they are ubiquitous in air, indoor dust, drinking water, and other environmental matrices. However, information on the presence of OPEs in foodstuffs and consequent health risks remains scant. This review critically evaluates available information on levels and sources of OPEs in food, discusses the relative significance of diet as a pathway of human exposure, identifies knowledge gaps, and suggests directions for future research. For toddlers, dermal uptake from dust ingestion appears the predominant pathway of exposure to chlorinated OPEs, as well as ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). In contrast, diet appears the main pathway of exposure to all eight OPEs considered for adults, and for tri n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP), and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) for toddlers. While summed exposures via all pathways are within reference dose (RfD) values, they do not include high-end exposure estimates, and for highly-exposed individuals, the margin between exposure and RfD values is smaller. Moreover, our exposure estimates are based on a meta-analysis of multiple exposure assessments conducted over a range of points in space and time. There is an urgent need for assessments of human exposure to OPEs that examine all relevant pathways in a spatially and temporally-consistent fashion. Given food is an important exposure pathway to OPEs, regular monitoring of their presence as well as their metabolites (that may have toxicological significance) in foodstuffs is recommended. While dermal uptake from indoor dust appears an important human exposure pathway, no evaluations exist of exposure via dermal uptake from OPE-containing products such as foam-filled furniture. This review also highlights very few data exist on OPEs in drinking water.

KW - Organophosphate esters

KW - Foodstuffs

KW - Indoor dust

KW - Indoor air

KW - Drinking water

KW - Dermal uptake

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144752

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144752

M3 - Review article

C2 - 33540161

VL - 771

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

M1 - 144752

ER -