A comparison of the sensory and rheological properties of molecular and particulate forms of xanthan gum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Rachael Abson
  • Sanyasi R. Gaddipati
  • Joanne Hort
  • John R. Mitchell
  • Sandra E. Hill

Colleges, School and Institutes


A particulate form of xanthan gum was prepared by extrusion cooking. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of this form shows similarities to starch with an increase in viscosity to a maximum with increasing temperature as a result of the swelling of the particles. The rheology and mixing behaviour with water of the particulate and conventional molecular forms of xanthan were compared with a modified starch. The particulate xanthan products mixed rapidly with water in a similar way to ungelatinised starch, whereas conventional molecular xanthan systems mixed poorly. Using an experienced sensory panel, model tomato products thickened with the three systems were compared at equal shear viscosities. The panel could not discriminate between the tomato flavour of the three products, but found that the xanthan products were perceived as being significantly thicker. These observations were consistent with previous work. Salt perception for both xanthan products was poorer than for the starch thickened systems. A hypothesis to explain why xanthan does not fit into the previously postulated link between mixing and perception is presented.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-90
Number of pages6
JournalFood Hydrocolloids
Early online date3 May 2013
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


  • Extrusion, Flavour perception, Particulate structure, Rheology, Starch, Xanthan