A comparison of magnetic resonance, X-ray and positron emission particle tracking measurements of a single jet of gas entering a bed of particles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • M. Pore
  • G. H. Ong
  • C. M. Boyce
  • M. Materazzi
  • A. J. Sederman
  • J. S. Dennis
  • D. J. Holland
  • P. Lettieri

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University of Cambridge
  • University College London


Measurements of the lengths of a single jet of gas entering a packed bed were made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) and X-ray radiography and the results compared. The experiments were performed using a Perspex bed (50mm i.d.) of poppy seeds: air at 298K was admitted to the base of the bed through a single, central orifice, 2mm in diameter. Poppy seeds (Geldart Group B, measured minimum fluidisation velocity with air at 298K and 1atm of 0.13m/s and particle density ~1060kg/m3) were used because of their high content of oil, which contains mobile protons and hence is suitable for MRI examination. The lengths of jet measured using the three techniques were in agreement between 50m/soo is the superficial velocity through the orifice. Below Uo=50m/s, X-ray measurements of jet lengths were shorter than those measured using MRI. This was attributed to the minimum diameter of void, found to be 5mm, detectable in a 50mm bed using ultra-fast X-ray measurements. PEPT is most commonly used to calculate particle velocities, whilst jet lengths are usually calculated from determinations of voidage. However, the particle locations determined in this work by PEPT were used to calculate a fractional occupancy count, from which a jet length could be inferred.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210-218
Number of pages9
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Early online date28 Sep 2014
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2015


  • Fluidization, Imaging, Magnetic resonance, Particles, PEPT, X-ray