A comparative study of biofuels and fischer–tropsch diesel blends on the engine combustion performance for reducing exhaust gaseous and particulate emissions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Felipe Andrade Torres
  • Runzhao Li
  • Robert Poku
  • Jorge Martins
  • Silvio A. B. Vieira de Melo


The worldwide consumption of fossil hydrocarbons in the road transport sector in 2020 corresponded to roughly half of the overall consumption. However, biofuels have been discreetly contributing to mitigate gaseous emissions and participating in sustainable development, and thus leading to the extending of the commercial utilization of internal combustion engines. In this scenario, the present work aims at exploring the effects of alternative fuels containing a blend of 15% ethanol and 35% biodiesel with a 50% fossil diesel (E15D50B35) or 50% Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) diesel (E15FTD50B35) on the engine combustion, exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx), particulate emissions characteristics as well as the performance of an aftertreatment system of a common rail diesel engine. It was found that one of the blends (E15FTD50B35) showed more than 30% reduction in PM concentration number, more than 25% reduction in mean particle size, and more than 85% reduction in total PM mass with respect to conventional diesel fuel. Additionally, it was found that the E15FTD50B35 blend reduces gaseous emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC) by more than 25% and NO by 3.8%. The oxidation catalyst was effective in carbonaceous emissions reduction, despite the catalyst light-off being slightly delayed in comparison to diesel fuel blends.

Bibliographic note

Funding Information: Acknowledgments: The University of Birmingham is gratefully acknowledged for the collaborative project under the International Cooperation Program with the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES) (Ref. No. 40/2014). The experimental work was conducted in the Future Engines & Fuels Lab, University of Birmingham. Felipe Andrade Torres (F.A.T.) is deeply grateful to the laboratory managers, staff, and researchers for their hospitability, time, suggestions, reviews, and support during all the research period in the UK. The Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES)-Finance Code 001 is also acknowledged for the research scholarship period and maintenance grant (Ref. No. 88887.199341/2018-00) for F.A.T.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1538
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2021


  • Aftertreatment system, Diesel engine, Ethanol, Exhaust emissions, Fischer–Tropsch diesel, Particulate matter