3D-Printed 96 GHz Bull’s-Eye Antenna with Off-Axis Beaming

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Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • Universidad Pública de Navarra
  • University of Siena


Reducing the profile, footprint and weight of antennas embarked on aircrafts, drones or satellites has been a long pursued objective. Here we tackle this issue by developing a millimeter-wave 96 GHz elliptical Bull’s-Eye antenna with off-axis radiation at 16.5º that has been fabricated by low cost 3D printing stereolithography, followed by metal coating. The theoretical basis for optimum off-axis operations is explained. Measurement results show an overall good agreement with simulations, displaying a gain of 17 dB and a 3.5º beamwidth (E-plane) at the operational frequency. The off-axis beaming enlarges the potential applicability of this technology with respect to the broadside beam solution.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-25
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number1
Early online date11 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017


  • Leaky wave antennas, millimeter-wave antenna, Corrugated surface, stereolithography