2021 roadmap on lithium sulfur batteries

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


  • James B. Robinson
  • Kai Xi
  • R. Vasant Kumar
  • Andrea C. Ferrari
  • Heather Au
  • Maria Magdalena Titirici
  • Andres Parra Puerto
  • Anthony Kucernak
  • Samuel D.S. Fitch
  • Nuria Garcia Araez
  • Zachary L. Brown
  • Mauro Pasta
  • Liam Furness
  • Alexander J. Kibler
  • Darren A. Walsh
  • Lee R. Johnson
  • Conrad Holc
  • Graham N. Newton
  • Foivos Markoulidis
  • Carol Crean
  • Robert C.T. Slade
  • Eleftherios I. Andritsos
  • Qiong Cai
  • Shumaila Babar
  • Teng Zhang
  • Constantina Lekakou
  • Nivedita Kulkarni
  • Alexander J.E. Rettie
  • Rhodri Jervis
  • Michael Cornish
  • Monica Marinescu
  • Gregory Offer
  • Zhuangnan Li
  • Liam Bird
  • Clare P. Grey
  • Manish Chhowalla
  • Daniele Di Lecce
  • Rhodri E. Owen
  • Thomas S. Miller
  • Dan J.L. Brett
  • Sebastien Liatard
  • David Ainsworth
  • Paul R. Shearing

Colleges, School and Institutes

External organisations

  • University College London
  • Harwell Science and Innovation Campus
  • University of Cambridge
  • Imperial College London
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Nottingham
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Surrey
  • E1 Culham Science Centre


Batteries that extend performance beyond the intrinsic limits of Li-ion batteries are among the most important developments required to continue the revolution promised by electrochemical devices. Of these next-generation batteries, lithium sulfur (Li S) chemistry is among the most commercially mature, with cells offering a substantial increase in gravimetric energy density, reduced costs and improved safety prospects. However, there remain outstanding issues to advance the commercial prospects of the technology and benefit from the economies of scale felt by Li-ion cells, including improving both the rate performance and longevity of cells. To address these challenges, the Faraday Institution, the UK s independent institute for electrochemical energy storage science and technology, launched the Lithium Sulfur Technology Accelerator (LiSTAR) programme in October 2019. This Roadmap, authored by researchers and partners of the LiSTAR programme, is intended to highlight the outstanding issues that must be addressed and provide an insight into the pathways towards solving them adopted by the LiSTAR consortium. In compiling this Roadmap we hope to aid the development of the wider Li S research community, providing a guide for academia, industry, government and funding agencies in this important and rapidly developing research space.

Bibliographic note

Publisher Copyright: © 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA Medialab srl.


Original languageEnglish
Article number031501
Number of pages66
JournalJPhys Energy
Issue number3
Early online date25 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • battery modelling, carbon materials, Li-metal anode, lithium sulfur batteries, polysulfide shuttle