Young Learner perspectives on four focus-on-form tasks

J Shak, Sheena Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)


Recent studies suggest that focus-on-form (FonF) instruction has a positive effect on the second language proficiency of young learners. However, few have looked at learner perspectives on different FonF tasks, particularly in those young learners. This study investigates children's attitudes towards four FonF task-types in three Primary 5 English classes in Brunei Darussalam. The four task-types selected are consciousness-raising, dictogloss, grammar interpretation and grammaring. Specifically, the study addresses children's perceived task enjoyment, ease, performance and motivation. Findings show that while there was a general trend of positive attitudes among children towards FonF tasks, variations in task preference existed, particularly with respect to three main sources of influence: cognitive demands, production demands, and pair/group-work opportunities. This research has implications for both the implementation of FonF instruction at primary school level, and the manipulation of task features to suit learners at this level.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-408
Number of pages22
JournalLanguage Teaching Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2008


  • ESI
  • learner perspectives
  • grammar tasks
  • young learners
  • focus on form


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