To test the hypothesis that assessments of human exposure to PBDEs and NBFRs (PBEB, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, BTBPE and DBDPE) via dust ingestion should take into account spatial and temporal variability in dust contamination; 238 dust samples were collected from nine different rooms within three homes in Birmingham UK. In each room, three different dust samples were taken at monthly intervals for nine months, one sample from elevated surfaces and two samples from two different floor areas. Substantial within-room and within-home spatial variability in BFR concentrations was apparent between two floor areas and between different rooms due to the varying distances of sampled surfaces from potential BFR sources. With the exception of DBDPE, BFR concentrations in elevated surface dust exceeded significantly those in floor dust. Considerable within-room and within-home temporal variability in BFR concentrations was also apparent over a nine month sampling period. This is likely attributable to changes in room contents. Based on observed spatial and temporal variability, exposure estimates based on analysis of a single dust sample taken from one specific floor area at one specific point in time may not be entirely representative of human exposure in that room. Noticeable variability in BFR concentrations was also observed between colder and warmer seasons. In 13 out of 17 floor areas, concentrations of Σ8tri-deca-BDEs were higher in colder seasons, while those of Σ5NBFRs were higher in warmer seasons. Significant negative correlation was observed in two rooms between concentrations of BDE-99, Σ7tri-hepta-BDEs and BEH-TEBP and dust loading (g/m2).
- Human exposure
- Indoor dust
- Spatial and temporal variability
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry