Winter is coming: the future of cryopreservation

Sanja Bojic, Alex Murray, Barry L. Bentley, Ralf Spindler, Piotr Pawlik, José L. Cordeiro, Roman Bauer, João Pedro De Magalhães

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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The preservative effects of low temperature on biological materials have been long recognised, and cryopreservation is now widely used in biomedicine, including in organ transplantation, regenerative medicine and drug discovery. The lack of organs for transplantation constitutes a major medical challenge, stemming largely from the inability to preserve donated organs until a suitable recipient is found. Here, we review the latest cryopreservation methods and applications. We describe the main challenges—scaling up to large volumes and complex tissues, preventing ice formation and mitigating cryoprotectant toxicity—discuss advantages and disadvantages of current methods and outline prospects for the future of the field.
Original languageEnglish
Article number56
Number of pages20
JournalBMC Biology
Issue number1
Early online date24 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Cryobiology
  • Organ banking
  • Freezing


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