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The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) is native to the main islands of Japan, except Hokkaido, and is the most northerly living non-human primate. In the Chubu Sangaku National Park of the Japanese Alps, macaques live in one of the coldest areas of the world, with snow cover limiting the availability of preferred food sources. Winter is typically a bottleneck for food availability potentially resulting in marked energy deficits, and mortality may result from famine. However, streams with groundwater upwelling flow during the winter with a constant water temperature of about 5 °C are easily accessible for Japanese macaques to search for riverine biota. We used metabarcoding (Cytochrome c oxidase I) of fecal samples from Japanese macaques to determine their wintertime diet. Here we provide the first robust evidence that Japanese macaques feed on freshwater biota, including brown trout, riverine insects and molluscs, in Chubu Sangaku National Park. These additional food sources likely aid their winter survival.