Willingness to Pay for Improvements in Chronic Long-Acting Insulin Therapy in Individuals With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

A Lloyd, B Nafees, Anthony Barnett, S Heller, UJ Ploug, M Lammert, M Bogelund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Long-acting insulin treatments with varying clinical benefits are currently available for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current evidence base demonstrates the efficacy of treatments, but it is critical also to understand patient preferences regarding treatments and how they are determined. Objective: This study aimed to measure the willingness to pay (WTP) of individuals with diabetes in the United Kingdom for different attributes of long-acting insulin therapy. Methods: A survey based on discrete choice experiment methodology was developed to elicit the preferences and values of adults with T1DM or insulin-dependent T2DM regarding different aspects of their therapy. Participants were presented with a series of 27 paired choices and asked which they preferred. WTP values were calculated for relevant attribute levels. Results: A total of 252 participants completed the questionnaire (52% response rate); 143 had T1DM and 109 had insulin-treated T2DM. The highest WTP values in participants with T1DM were avoiding 2-kg or 4-kg weight gain (29 pound and 58 pound, respectively), avoiding major difficulties with the injection device (49) pound, increasing the number of days per week when blood glucose levels are in the target range from 2 to 6 (40) pound, reducing the number of daily injections from 3 to 1 (39) pound, and avoiding nighttime hypoglycemia (33) pound. In participants with T2DM, similar factors had the highest WTP. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess WTP for long-acting insulin therapy and could have implications for future guidelines on diabetes management, however some limitations, notably in sample selection, could affect generalizability of the results. In both T1DM and T2DM, the highest WTP values were for avoidance of weight gain, and reduction in the number of injections and hypoglycemia. (Clin Ther. 2011;33: 1258-1267) (C) 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1258-1267
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Therapeutics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2011


  • willingness to pay
  • diabetes
  • long-acting insulin therapy


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