Vulnerability analysis of steel roofing cladding: influence of wind directionality

X. Ji, Guilan Huang, X. Zhang, Gregory Kopp

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20 Citations (Scopus)
189 Downloads (Pure)


Steel roofing is widely used for non-residential facilities. However, it is vulnerable to high winds. This paper addresses a damage estimation framework that incorporates wind loading correlation and wind directionality effects for steel roofing. In this framework, external pressures were measured from wind tunnel testing. At positions where pressure measurements are not available, a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is introduced to interpolate external wind pressures. Internal pressures due to openings in the building envelope are taken into account by simulation. Then, the internal forces on fasteners distributed on the steel roof are evaluated by the influence-surface-based method, with corresponding peak values estimated by a Gumbel conversion approach. Furthermore, the failure probability of a single cladding element and the damage ratio for the whole roof are determined based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), where the correlation among internal forces of fasteners is incorporated by a Nataf transformation. Finally, wind directionality effects are integrated in order to provide a comprehensive damage assessment for the roofing. Although the proposed framework works for existing buildings, it may potentially benefit the performance-based design for new low-rise buildings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-597
JournalEngineering Structures
Early online date22 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • wind damage estimation
  • steel roofing
  • proper orthogonal decomposition
  • internal pressure
  • correlation
  • nataf transformation
  • wind directionality


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