Effects of vitamin D on the immune system have been recognized for over 30 years and stemmed in part from analysis of the dysregulated vitamin D metabolism associated with granulomatous diseases. However, it is only in more recent years that a role for interaction between vitamin D and normal immune function has been proposed. As with the original studies, the basis for this new perspective on immunomodulation by vitamin D stems from studies of vitamin D metabolism by immune cells. In particular, induction of the vitamin D-activating enzyme CYP27B1 in monocytes via pathogen recognizing receptors has highlighted an entirely new function for vitamin D as a potent inducer of antibacterial innate immune responses. This has prompted a new potential role for vitamin D in protecting against infection in a wide range of tissues but has also prompted revision of the parameters for adequate vitamin D status. The following review describes some of the key developments in innate immune responses to vitamin D with particular emphasis on the role of key metabolic enzyme as determinants of localized immune activity of vitamin D.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase
- Antigen Presentation
- Dendritic Cells
- Immunity, Innate
- Models, Immunological
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Deficiency