Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MR) based imaging has become an integrated domain in today's oncology research and clinical management of cancer patients. MR is a unique imaging modality among numerous other imaging modalities by providing access to anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular details of tumor with excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. In this review we will cover established and investigational MR imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) techniques used for cancer imaging and demonstrate wealth of information on tumor biology and clinical applications MR techniques offer for oncology research both in preclinical and clinical settings. Emphasis is given not only to the variety of information which may be obtained but also the complementary nature of the techniques. This ability to determine tumor type, grade, invasiveness, degree of hypoxia, microvacular characteristics and metabolite phenotype, has already profoundly transformed oncology research and patient management. It is evident from the data reviewed that MR techniques will play a key role in uncovering molecular fingerprints of cancer, developing targeted treatment strategies and assessing responsiveness to treatment for personalized patient management, thereby allowing rapid translation of imaging research data into the benefit of clinical oncology.
- magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- imaging biomarkers
- magnetic resonance imaging