Urinary microalbumin/creatinine ratios: reference range in uncomplicated pregnancy

J Waugh, SC Bell, Mark Kilby, PC Lambert, CN Blackwell, A Shennan, A Halligan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    20 Citations (Scopus)


    During uncomplicated pregnancy, the development of proteinuria is accepted as a poor prognostic sign and is associated with increasing maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Physiological proteinuria increases with increasing gestation and one of its largest constituents is albumin. The reference range for the (micro)albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) has not been described for normal pregnancy. This prospective cross-sectional study describes the gestation-specific 95% reference ranges for urinary microalbumin concentration, creatinine concentration and ACR in uncomplicated pregnancy. There is a significant increase (P = 0.016) in the ACR in the third trimester. The mean difference is 0.091 mg of albumin/mmol of creatinine (95% confidence interval, 0.014-0.168). Our results describe the first well-defined gestation-specific 95% reference range for a point-of-care measurement of the ACR. These data are essential if such testing is to be employed in antenatal care.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)103-107
    Number of pages5
    JournalClinical Science
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2003


    • microalbuminuria
    • albumin/creatinine ratio
    • pregnancy
    • reference range


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