This study tests whether strategic ambidexterity improves Product-service innovation (PSI) outcomes for manufacturing multinational enterprises (MMNEs). It also tests successful pathways to develop PSI properly by organizing exploitation and exploration activities. Data from a survey of 338 MMNEs are analysed through Structural Equations Modelling. The sample contains firms from five world regions, including emerging economies. This approach enables contrast to determine cross-country heterogeneity in PSI outcomes. The results show that, to maximise firm performance, PSI must be developed through a sequential Exploitation-Exploration pathway. Although this optimal sequence is consistent across all world regions (except Japan), noticeable contextual differences emerge in the relative importance of exploration and exploitation to firm performance. Our findings show that exploitation (i.e., cost efficiency through PSI design) and exploration (i.e., PSI R&D) capabilities are equally important in emerging economies.
- Strategic ambidexterity
- product-service innovation
- manufacturing multinational enterprises