Understanding non-linearity in electrochemical systems using multisine-based non-linear characterization

Chuanxin Fan*, Thomas R.B. Grandjean, Kieran O’Regan, Emma Kendrick, Widanalage D. Widanage

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: With the development of advanced characterization techniques, lithium-ion battery non-linearities have recently gained increased attention which can benefit battery health diagnosis and ageing mechanism identification. In comparison to conventional single sine wave-based methods, the multisine-based non-linear characterization method has the advantage of capturing the dynamic voltage response within a short testing duration, and therefore has further development potential for on-board applications. However, understanding lithium-ion battery electrochemical processes that contribute to battery non-linearities is still unclear. 

Methods: In this paper, the sensitivity of the Doyle–Fuller–Newman model parameters are analysed in the frequency domain to investigate the electrochemical processes that contribute to the non-linear dynamics of the voltage response. To begin with, the non-linearities of the Doyle–Fuller–Newman model with validated parameters are characterized and compared to experimental data from a commercial cell. This demonstrated a significant difference between the mathematical model and the non-linearities determined experimentally. Then, a global sensitivity analysis is applied to determine the most sensitive parameter contributing to battery non-linearities. Finally, the appropriate value of the most sensitive parameter which results in the closest non-linear response to the commercial battery is estimated through minimizing the root mean square error. 

Results: The results show that the charge transfer coefficient is the most sensitive parameter contributing to battery non-linearities among the Doyle–Fuller–Newman model parameters. The non-linear response of the Doyle–Fuller–Newman model is validated with good agreement with the experimental results, when the Butler–Volmer kinetic is asymmetrical due to the unequal anodic and cathodic charge transfer coefficients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control
Early online date22 Sept 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The research presented within this paper is supported by WMG, University of Warwick, UK (09ESWM21) and Institute of Digital Engineering (IDE), UK under a grant for Virtually Connected Hybrid Vehicle project.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.


  • electrochemical battery model
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • multisine-based non-linear characterization
  • non-linear dynamic responses
  • sensitivity analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation


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