Tighter regulatory standards for trihalomethanes in drinking water have been introduced in many countries in response to improved epidemiological evidence. This has led to the need to model better the THM concentrations in water distribution systems in order to manage efficiently economic, chemical and microbiological factors. THM modelling is a challenging process given the complex chemistry and dependence on river catchment, water treatment works and distribution system characteristics. It is demonstrated that a good understanding of the system from raw water to tap is needed if cost effective models of appropriate fidelity are to be produced. For appropriate systems models can incorporate, through empirical relationships, raw water quality variations based on river flow predictions, aspects of unit process management decision making variables as well as distribution system characteristics. In many systems model fidelity and hence efficient management is constrained by a lack of knowledge of system response.
- water quality
- disinfection by-products