Ultrafast nonlinear response of gold gyroid three-dimensional metamaterials

Petros Farah, Angela Demetriadou, Stefano Salvatore, Silvia Vignolini, Morgan Stefik, Ulrich Wiesner, Ortwin Hess, Ullrich Steiner, Ventsislav K. Valev, Jeremy J. Baumberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


We explore the nonlinear optical response of three-dimensional gyroidal metamaterials, which show
greater than tenfold enhancements compared to all other metallic nanomaterials as well as bulk gold.
A simple analytical model for this metamaterial response shows how the reflectivity spectrum scales with
the metal fill fraction and the refractive index of the material that the metallic nanostructure is embedded in. The ultrafast response arising from the interconnected three-dimensional nanostructure can be separated
into electronic and lattice contributions with strong spectral dependences on the dielectric filling of the gyroids, which invert the sign of the nonlinear transient reflectivity changes. These metamaterials thus provide a wide variety of tunable nonlinear optical properties, which can be utilized for frequency mixing, optical switching, phase modulators, novel emitters, and enhanced sensing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number044002
Number of pages8
JournalPhysical Review Applied
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2014


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