Translating scientific advances in the AOP framework to decision making for nanomaterials

James D Ede, Vladimir Lobaskin, Ulla Vogel, Iseult Lynch, Sabina Halappanavar, Shareen H Doak, Megan G Roberts, Jo Anne Shatkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
146 Downloads (Pure)


Much of the current innovation in advanced materials is occurring at the nanoscale, specifically in manufactured nanomaterials (MNs). MNs display unique attributes and behaviors, and may be biologically and physically unique, making them valuable across a wide range of applications. However, as the number, diversity and complexity of MNs coming to market continue to grow, assessing their health and environmental risks with traditional animal testing approaches is too time- and cost-intensive to be practical, and is undesirable for ethical reasons. New approaches are needed that meet current requirements for regulatory risk assessment while reducing reliance on animal testing and enabling safer-by-design product development strategies to be implemented. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework presents a sound model for the advancement of MN decision making. Yet, there are currently gaps in technical and policy aspects of AOPs that hinder the adoption and use for MN risk assessment and regulatory decision making. This review outlines the current status and next steps for the development and use of the AOP framework in decision making regarding the safety of MNs. Opportunities and challenges are identified concerning the advancement and adoption of AOPs as part of an integrated approach to testing and assessing (IATA) MNs, as are specific actions proposed to advance the development, use and acceptance of the AOP framework and associated testing strategies for MN risk assessment and decision making. The intention of this review is to reflect the views of a diversity of stakeholders including experts, researchers, policymakers, regulators, risk assessors and industry representatives on the current status, needs and requirements to facilitate the future use of AOPs in MN risk assessment. It incorporates the views and feedback of experts that participated in two workshops hosted as part of an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) project titled, "Advancing AOP Development for Nanomaterial Risk Assessment and Categorization", as well as input from several EU-funded nanosafety research consortia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1229
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant No. 686098 (SmartNanoTox), Grant No. 760813 (PATROLS) and Grant No. 731032 (NanoCommons).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Adverse outcome pathway
  • Decision making
  • Nanomaterials
  • Risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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