Transcription and replication are the two most essential processes that a cell does with its DNA: they allow cells to express the genomic content that is required for their functions and to create a perfect copy of this genomic information to pass on to the daughter cells. Nevertheless, these two processes are in a constant ambivalent relationship. When transcription and replication occupy the same regions, there is the possibility of conflicts between transcription and replication as transcription can impair DNA replication progression leading to increased DNA damage. Nevertheless, DNA replication origins are preferentially located in open chromatin next to actively transcribed regions, meaning that the possibility of conflicts is potentially an accepted incident for cells. Data in the literature point both towards the existence or not of coordination between these two processes to avoid the danger of collisions. Several reviews have been published on transcription–replication conflicts, but we focus here on the most recent findings that relate to how these two processes are coordinated in eukaryotes, considering advantages and disadvantages from coordination, how likely conflicts are at any given time, and which are their potential hotspots in the genome.
- DNA damage
- DNA replication
- genome instability
- transcription–replication collision