Toxicological effect of single contaminants and contaminant mixtures associated with plant ingredients in novel salmon feeds

Liv Søfteland*, Jennifer A. Kirwan, Tiago S F Hori, Trond R. Størseth, Ulf Sommer, Marc H G Berntssen, Mark R. Viant, Matthew L. Rise, Rune Waagbø, Bente E. Torstensen, Marije Booman, Pål A. Olsvik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)
398 Downloads (Pure)


Increasing use of plant feed ingredients may introduce contaminants not previously associated with farming of salmonids, such as pesticides and PAHs from environmental sources or from thermal processing of oil seeds. To screen for interaction effects of contaminants newly introduced in salmon feeds, Atlantic salmon primary hepatocytes were used. The xCELLigence cytotoxicity system was used to select optimal dosages of the PAHs benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene, the pesticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and combinations of these. NMR and MS metabolic profiling and microarray transcriptomic profiling was used to identify novel biomarkers. Lipidomic and transcriptomic profiling suggested perturbation of lipid metabolism, as well as endocrine disruption. The pesticides gave the strongest responses, despite having less effect on cell viability than the PAHs. Only weak molecular responses were detected in PAH-exposed hepatocytes. Chlorpyrifos suppressed the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Endosulfan affected steroid hormone synthesis, while benzo(a)pyrene disturbed vitamin D3 metabolism. The primary mixture effect was additive, although at high concentrations the pesticides acted in a synergistic fashion to decrease cell viability and down-regulate CYP3A and FABP4 transcription. This work highlights the usefulness of 'omics techniques and multivariate data analysis to investigate interactions within mixtures of contaminants with different modes of action.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-174
Number of pages18
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Early online date2 Sept 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2014


  • Atlantic salmon
  • Metabolomics
  • PAH
  • Pesticides
  • Synergy
  • Toxicogenomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology


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