Towards robotizing the processes of testing lithium-ion batteries

Alireza Rastegarpanah, Mohamed Ahmeid, Naresh Marturi, Pierrot S Attidekou, Muhammad Musbahu, Rohit Ner, Simon Lambert, Rustam Stolkin

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To boost the circular economy of the electric vehicle battery industry, an accurate assessment of the state of health of retired batteries is essential to assign them an appropriate value in the post automotive market and material degradation before recycling. In practice, the advanced battery testing techniques are usually limited to laboratory benches at the battery cell level and hardly used in the industrial environment at the battery module or pack level. This necessitates developing battery recycling facilities that can handle the assessment and testing undertakings for many batteries with different form factors. Towards this goal, for the first time, this article proposes proof of concept to automate the process of collecting the impedance data from a retired 24kWh Nissan LEAF battery module. The procedure entails the development of robot end-of-arm tooling that was connected to a Potentiostat. In this study, the robot was guided towards a fixed battery module using visual servoing technique, and then impedance control system was applied to create compliance between the end-of-arm tooling and the battery terminals. Moreover, an alarm system was designed and mounted on the robot’s wrist to check the connectivity between a Potentiostat and the battery terminals. Subsequently, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test was run over a wide range of frequencies at a 5% state of charge. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data obtained from the automated test is validated by means of the three criteria (linearity, causality and stability) and compared with manually collected measurements under the same conditions. Results suggested the proposed automated configuration can accurately accomplish the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test at the battery module level with no human intervention, which ensures safety and allows this advanced testing technique to be adopted in grading retired battery modules.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1309-1325
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering
Issue number8
Early online date5 Mar 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Mar 2021


  • Robot end-of-arm tooling
  • electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • finite-element analysis
  • lithium-ion battery
  • visual-servoing


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