Topiramate and metformin are effective add-on treatments in controlling antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Chuanjun Zhuo, Yong Xu, Sha Liu, Jing Li, Qishi Zheng, Xiangyang Gao, Shen Li, Rixing Jing, Xueqin Song, Weihua Yue, Chunhua Zhou, Rachel Upthegrove

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Background: Antipsychotic drugs may lead to side effects such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. The current systematic review and network meta-analysis analyzes and provides an update on the clinical performance of these add-ons in comparison to placebo on body weight and body mass index (BMI) reductions. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed on electronic databases: PubMed (1946-), Embase (1974-), Cochrane library (1992-), and OpenGrey (2000-) until 31 July 2018. Network meta-analyses, comparing the body weight change, BMI change and withdrawn due to adverse events of different pharmacological add-ons, was performed using a multivariate meta-regression model with random-effects, adopting a frequentist approach. To rank the prognosis for all add-ons, we used surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) values. Outcomes: From 614 potential studies identified, 27 eligible studies (n = 1,349 subjects) were included. All the studies demonstrated low to moderate risk of bias. For the analysis of body weight change, all add-ons except Ranitidine showed significant weight reductions comparing to placebo. The effectiveness rank based on SUCRA results from highest to lowest was Sibutramine, Topiramate, Metformin, Reboxetine, Ranitidine, and placebo. A similar pattern was seen for BMI change. The analysis of safety outcome did not detect significantly increased withdrawn number from the add-ons. Current evidence showed relatively good tolerance and safety of using the pharmacological add-ons. Interpretation: Topiramate and Metformin are effective add-on treatments in controlling antipsychotic-induced weight gain, comparing to placebo. They are well tolerated in short-term period. Although Sibutramine has the highest rank of the effectiveness, its license has been withdrawn in many countries due to its adverse effects. Hence, Sibutramine should not be adopted to treat antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1393
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 28 Nov 2018

Bibliographical note

Zhuo C, Xu Y, Liu S, Li J, Zheng Q, Gao X, Li S, Jing R, Song X, Yue W, Zhou C and Upthegrove R (2018) Topiramate and Metformin Are Effective Add-On Treatments in Controlling Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Front. Pharmacol. 9:1393. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01393


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