Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) [OMIM 201 910] is a group of autosomal recessive disorders most commonly due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and presenting with a wide range of clinical manifestations. A limited number of inactivating pseudogene-derived mutations account for the majority of 21-hydroxylase gene ( CYP21) mutations, additional rare mutations can be found in single families and small populations. We found three novel CYP21 mutations in CAH patients suffering from the classical form of the disease, of which one is a frameshift mutation (1353-1354insA) leading to a premature termination codon (K277K, Q228A...E294X), one results in a premature stop codon (2551C>T, R444X), and one is a missense mutation (2609T>C; P463L). The frameshift and premature stop mutations can be predicted to result in a CYP21 protein without any residual enzyme activity. To determine the functional consequences of the P463L mutation, the IN VITRO enzyme activity was studied in COS-7 cells and revealed a reduced 21-hydroxylase activity of 2.6+/-0.8 (SD)% for the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) to 11-deoxycortisol and of 3.0+/-0.5 % for the conversion of progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC). We conclude that functional analyses of unknown mutations provide information on the disease severity and should be always performed when novel CYP21 mutations are detected. Knowledge of the residual 21-hydroxylase function improves both genetic counselling and individual clinical management in CAH patients.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes|
|Publication status||Published - 2006|