Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and upgrading to biofuel: The Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process - A review

Nina Schmitt, Andreas Apfelbacher, Nils Jäger, Robert Daschner, Fabian Stenzel, Andreas Hornung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
465 Downloads (Pure)


Thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR®) is a promising conversion technology for the production of liquid bio-fuels. The process is a proven opportunity to convert biological wastes and residues into hydrogen-rich syngas, high-quality oil, and char without volatiles. Bio-oil produced from TCR® has a high carbon content, low water content, low oxygen content, and a high heating value; it is therefore directly applicable as feed in boilers or as blend in dual fuel engines. A feasible opportunity for using bio-oil in automotive combustion engines is a further upgrade step to bio-fuel by hydrogenation. During this hydrotreatment, heterogeneous atoms like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen are removed or substituted with hydrogen. Fraunhofer UMSICHT already produces gasoline and diesel that comply with European fuel standards EN 228 and EN 590, using different catalysts like NiMo/Al 2 O 3 , CoMo/Al 2 O 3 , and Ru/C for hydrogenation at 643 K and a constant hydrogen pressure of 14 MPa. Various hydrocarbons and benzene derivatives are verified after hydrotreating.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)822-837
Number of pages16
JournalBiofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining
Issue number3
Early online date25 Feb 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2 May 2019


  • bio-oil upgrading
  • biofuel
  • biomass
  • catalytic hydrotreating
  • intermediate pyrolysis
  • thermo-catalytic reforming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


Dive into the research topics of 'Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and upgrading to biofuel: The Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process - A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this