Theoretical treatments of two-dimensional two-phase flows of steam and comparison with cascade measurements

Farhang Bakhtar, AJ White, Hisham Mashmoushy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)


During the course of expansion of steam in turbines, the state path crosses the saturation line and hence subsequent turbine stages operate with wet steam. These stages have lower thermodynamic efficiencies than those operating in the superheated region, and currently the phenomena contributing to the increased losses are not fully understood. The development of the nucleation theory has opened the way for the study of condensing flows in turbines. As, with the advances in numerical methods, the equations describing droplet nucleation and growth rates can be combined with the field conservation equations and the set treated numerically, which allows the behaviour of complex nucleating and wet steam flows in turbines to be analysed. This paper outlines and reviews wet steam calculation methods and discusses comparisons between numerical and experimental results. For the most part, the comparisons presented are based on work of the authors and their co-workers, but some more recent calculations by other investigators are also included.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1335-1355
Number of pages21
JournalInstitution of Mechanical Engineers. Proceedings. Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005


  • nucleation
  • steam turbines
  • two-phase flows
  • cascades of blades
  • non-equilibrium flow
  • wet steam
  • fluid dynamics
  • time marching


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