The West Midlands Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme: rationale and design.

Maurice Zeegers, Richard Bryan, Carolyn Langford, Lucinda Billingham, Paul Murray, NS Deshmukh, Syed Hussain, Nicholas James, David Wallace, Kar Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE To describe the rationale and design of the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme (BCPP), and to demonstrate the capability of this design. METHODS There is a need to understand the determinants of bladder cancer to help reduce recurrence, progression, morbidity, mortality and related costs. We previously showed that lifestyle factors are important for determining the risk of bladder cancer, but little is known about their importance in determining the risk of recurrence or progression after diagnosis. Also, histopathological factors alone provide only crude prognostication; the analysis of molecular markers represents a method for refinement but research in this area has not been useful in informing therapeutic decisions or prognostication. The BCPP is a prospective longitudinal cohort study of all patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer within the West Midlands (UK), investigating the influence of lifestyle factors on recurrence and progression, health-related quality of life, the predictive effect of a panel of molecular markers on recurrence or progression, and the establishment of Europe's largest comprehensive bladder cancer bio-repository. It also incorporates the first randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E on bladder cancer. The numbers and proportions of eligible patients recruited, questionnaires completed and specimens obtained were all recorded. RESULTS Since December 2005, 771 patients have been recruited (68% of eligible patients) and of these, 331 are currently being followed up by questionnaires. We have obtained blood, urine and tumour tissues from 92%, 80% and 80% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The design of the BCPP has allowed this study to be incorporated into routine clinical work throughout the West Midlands, achieving high levels of recruitment, and data and specimen collection. This might represent a model for the future investigation of urological and other malignancies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)784-788
Number of pages5
JournalBJU international
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sept 2009

Bibliographical note

Publication date on PubMed is March 2010


  • bladder cancer
  • biobank
  • epidemiology
  • cohort study


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