The Spatial Extent of Pain Is Associated with Pain Intensity, Catastrophizing and Some Measures of Central Sensitization in People with Frozen Shoulder

Mercè Balasch-Bernat, Lirios Dueñas, Marta Aguilar-Rodríguez, Deborah Falla, Alessandro Schneebeli, Marta Navarro-Bosch, Enrique Lluch, Marco Barbero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the spatial extent of pain and its association with clinical symptoms, psychological features, and pain sensitization in people with frozen shoulder (FS). Forty-eight individuals with FS completed pain drawings (PDs) and reported their clinical symptoms including pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale) and shoulder disability (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index). Moreover, pain sensitization measurements (pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation, conditioned pain modulation, and Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI)) were assessed. Psychological features were assessed by Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire. Pain frequency maps were generated, Margolis rating scale was used for pain location, and Spearman correlation coefficients were computed. The mean (SD) pain extent was 12.5% (6.7%) and the most common painful area was the anterolateral shoulder region (100%). Women presented a more widespread pain distribution compared with men. Significant positive associations were obtained between pain extent and current pain intensity (rs = 0.421, p < 0.01), PCS (rs = 0.307, p < 0.05) and CSI (rs = 0.358, p < 0.05). The anterolateral region of the shoulder was the most common painful area in people with FS. Women with FS presented more extended areas of pain; and a more widespread distribution of pain was correlated with higher levels of pain, pain catastrophizing and pain sensitization.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2021

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