Xerogel films with uniform surface topogrophy, as determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, were prepared from aminopropylsilyl-, fluorocarbonsilyl-, and hydrocarbonsilyl- containing precursors. Young's modulus was determined from AFM indentation measurements. The xerogel coatings gave reduced settlement of zoospores of the marine fouling alga Ulva compared to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard. Increased settlement correlated with decreased water wettability as measured by the static water contact angle, theta(Ws), or with decreased polar contribution (gamma(P)) to the surface free energy (gamma(S)) as measured by comprehensive contact angle analysis. The strength of attachment of 7-day sporelings (young plants) of Ulva on several of the xerogels was similar to that on PDMSE although no overall correlation was observed with either theta(Ws) or gamma(S). For sporelings attached to the fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified xerogels, the strength of attachment increased with increased water wettability. The aminopropyl-modified xerogels did not follow this trend.
- comprehensive contact angle analysis
- fouling release
- surface energy
- water wettability