The role of endogenous lipids in the emulsifying properties of cocoa

Joanne M. Gould*, Samuel Furse, Bettina Wolf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
116 Downloads (Pure)


This paper describes a study in which the emulsifying properties of cocoa material with and without its lipid fraction were explored. This study was motivated by the commercial interest in naturally-occurring particulate emulsifiers as opposed to the chemically modified emulsifying particles presently available for commercial use. The hypothesis was that endogenous lipids from cocoa were responsible for driving the formation of stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The data presented includes relative quantification of phospholipids from different commercially available cocoa material using 31P NMR spectroscopy and analyses of the emulsifying power of delipidified cocoa material. The commercially available cocoa material comprised several phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most abundant in all samples. Dispersions of delipidified cocoa material were found to drive the formation of o/w emulsions despite the absence of lipids. We therefore concluded that the emulsifying behavior of cocoa material is not entirely reliant upon the endogenous lipids. This suggests that cocoa material may have a new and potentially widespread use in industrial food preparation and may inform manufacturing strategies for novel food grade emulsifiers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11
JournalFrontiers in Chemistry
Issue numberMAR
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2016


  • Cocoa
  • Emulsifier
  • Oil-in-water emulsions
  • Phospholipids
  • Pickering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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