The risk of a subsequent diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in subjects with ophthalmic disorders associated with inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective cohort analysis of UK primary care data

Dominic King, Joht Chandan, Tom Thomas, Alastair Denniston, Tasanee Braithwaite, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Raoul Reulen, Nicola Adderley, Nigel Trudgill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives Ophthalmic conditions including anterior uveitis (AU), episcleritis and scleritis may occur in association with the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) as ophthalmic extraintestinal manifestations. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of a later IBD diagnosis in those presenting with IBD associated ocular inflammation (IAOI).

Design Retrospective cohort study.

Setting Primary care UK database.

Participants 38 805 subjects with an IAOI were identified (median age 51 (38–65), 57% women) and matched to 153 018 subjects without IAOI.

Measures The risk of a subsequent diagnosis of IBD in subjects with IAOIs compared with age/sex matched subjects without IAOI. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, deprivation, comorbidity, smoking, baseline axial arthropathy, diarrhoea, loperamide prescription, anaemia, lower gastrointestinal bleeding and abdominal pain.

Logistic regression was used to produce a prediction model for a diagnosis of IBD within 3 years of an AU diagnosis.

Results 213 (0.6%) subsequent IBD diagnoses (102 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 111 Crohn’s disease (CD)) were recorded in those with IAOIs and 329 (0.2%) (215 UC and 114 CD) in those without. Median time to IBD diagnosis was 882 (IQR 365–2043) days in those with IAOI and 1403 (IQR 623–2516) in those without. The adjusted HR for a subsequent diagnosis of IBD was 2.25 (95% CI 1.89 to 2.68), p<0.001; for UC 1.65 (95% CI 1.30 to 2.09), p<0.001; and for CD 3.37 (95% CI 2.59 to 4.40), p<0.001 in subjects with IAOI compared with those without.

Within 3 years of an AU diagnosis, 84 (0.5%) subjects had a recorded diagnosis of IBD. The prediction model performed well with a C-statistic of 0.75 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.80).

Conclusions Subjects with IAOI have a twofold increased risk of a subsequent IBD diagnosis. Healthcare professionals should be alert for potential signs and symptoms of IBD in those presenting with ophthalmic conditions associated with IBD.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere052833
JournalBMJ open
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2022

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