The prevalence of concurrently raised blood glucose and blood pressure in India: a cross-sectional study of 2,035,662 adults

Anne C. Bischops, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Lindsay M Jaacks, Ashish Awasthi, Michaela Theilmann, Justine Davies, Rifat Atun, Till Bärnighausen, Sebastian Vollmer, Pascal Geldsetzer

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Objective: In order to inform integrated, person-centered interventions, this studyaimed to determine the prevalence of having both a raised blood glucose (BG) andblood pressure (BP) in India, and its variation among states and population groups.

Methods: We pooled data from three large household surveys (the AHS, DLHS-4, andNFHS-4), which were carried out between 2012 and 2016 and included adults aged≥15 years. Raised BG was defined as having a plasma glucose reading ≥126 mg/dl iffasted and ≥200 mg/dl if not fasted, and raised BP as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg ordiastolic BP ≥90 mmHg. The prevalence of having a concurrently raised BG and BP(‘co-morbid’) was age-standardized to India’s national population structure, anddisaggregated by sex, age group, BMI group, rural-urban residency, household wealthquintile, education, state, and region.

Results: The age-standardized prevalence of the co-morbidity was 1.5% (95% CI, 1.5-1.5), varying by a factor of 8.3 between states. Among those aged ≥50 years, 4.5%(95% CI, 4.3-4.7) with a BMI<23.0kg/m2 and 16.1% (95% CI, 15.0-17.4) with a BMI≥30kg/m2 were co-morbid. Age, BMI, household wealth quintile, male sex, and urbanlocation were all positively associated with the co-morbidity.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of India’s population had both a raised BG andBP, calling for integrated interventions to reduce CVD risk. We identified large variationamong states, age groups, and by rural-urban residency, which can inform healthsystem planning and the targeting of interventions, such as appropriate screeningprograms, to those most in need.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1822–1831
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2019


  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • India
  • blood Glucose
  • blood pressure
  • cardiovascular disease
  • co-morbidity


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