The Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Punding in Parkinson's Disease

AH Spencer, Hugh Rickards, A Fasano, Andrea Cavanna

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

66 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Punding (the display of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors) is a relatively recently discovered feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about the prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in PD. Methods: In this review, four large scientific databases were comprehensively searched for literature in relation to punding prevalence and clinical correlates in the context of PD. Results: Prevalence was found to vary greatly (between 0.34 to 14%), although there were large disparities in study populations, assessment methods, and criteria. We observed an association between punding, dopaminergic medications, and impulse control disorder. Other characteristics, which may be more common among punders, include a higher severity of dyskinesia, younger age of disease onset, longer disease duration, and male gender. Discussion: More research in large clinical data-sets is required in many areas before conclusions are drawn. The pathophysiology behind the punding phenomenon is also poorly understood at present, rendering it difficult to develop targeted therapy. The current mainstay of treatment is the reduction in the dose of dopaminergic medications, the evidence for other suggested therapies being purely empirical. (C) 2011 Movement Disorder Society
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)578-586
Number of pages9
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2011


  • punding
  • dopamine
  • behavioral disorders
  • Parkinson's disease
  • stereotyped movements


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