The prediction, diagnosis and management of complications in monochorionic twin pregnancies: the OMMIT (Optimal Management of Monochorionic Twins)

Fiona Mackie, R. Katie Morris, Mark Kilby, Fiona MacKie

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Abstract

Background
Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at increased risk of complications due to sharing a single placenta and potentially developing unbalanced vascular anastomoses. Complications include twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) which affects 10–15% monochorionic twins, and if untreated has a 70–90% perinatal loss rate. We are currently unable to predict which twins will develop complications or to what severity. We have previously shown differences in angiogenic and placental growth factors in maternal blood in pregnancies complicated by TTTS compared to twin pregnancies not complicated by TTTS but matched for gestation. There is also evidence to suggest that abnormal ultrasound measurements recorded in the first trimester (nuchal translucency and crown-rump length) may be associated with severe TTTS later in pregnancy, however the detection rate is only reported as 52%. We hypothesize that if these changes precede the development of the clinical syndrome, this may increase the sensitivity and specificity of detecting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Methods
This cohort study has retrospective and prospective elements. In the retrospective cohort we will measure factors (decided based on preliminary work and a systematic review and meta-analysis) in stored maternal blood samples taken in the first-trimester, extract first-trimester ultrasound measurements and match these to pregnancy outcome. The prospective cohort will be divided into a “screening” cohort and “complicated” cohort. The screening cohort will undergo serial maternal blood sampling at 12, 16 and 20 weeks; we will extract ultrasound measurements and match to pregnancy outcome. The complicated cohort will comprise of women referred to the Fetal Medicine Centre with complications of monochorionicity. If the decision is taken to undergo fetoscopic laser ablation we will take maternal blood samples and amniotic fluid samples pre- and post-laser treatment. The same factors will be measured in the prospective cohort as informed by the retrospective study.
Original languageEnglish
Article number153
JournalBMC pregnancy and childbirth
Volume17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 May 2017

Keywords

  • Monochorionic
  • Twin-twin transfusion syndrome
  • Biomarker
  • Prediction
  • Fetoscopic laser ablation

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