The power-optimised software envelope

Stephen I. Roberts, Steven A. Wright, Suhaib A. Fahmy, Stephen A. Jarvis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Advances in processor design have delivered performance improvements for decades. As physical limits are reached, refinements to the same basic technologies are beginning to yield diminishing returns. Unsustainable increases in energy consumption are forcing hardware manufacturers to prioritise energy efficiency in their designs. Research suggests that software modifications may be needed to exploit the resulting improvements in current and future hardware. New tools are required to capitalise on this new class of optimisation. In this article, we present the Power Optimised Software Envelope (POSE) model, which allows developers to assess the potential benefits of power optimisation for their applications. The POSE model is metric agnostic and in this article, we provide derivations using the established Energy-Delay Product metric and the novel Energy-Delay Sum and Energy-Delay Distance metrics that we believe are more appropriate for energy-aware optimisation efforts. We demonstrate POSE on three platforms by studying the optimisation characteristics of applications from the Mantevo benchmark suite. Our results show that the Pathfinder application has very little scope for power optimisation while TeaLeaf has the most, with all other applications in the benchmark suite falling between the two. Finally, we extend our POSE model with a formulation known as System Summary POSE-a meta-heuristic that allows developers to assess the scope a system has for energy-aware software optimisation independent of the code being run.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Extension of Conference Paper: In our previous paper [35] we introduced a visual modelling tool called POSE, designed to guide energy-aware optimisation. In this paper, we extend our model with formulations based on two newly developed metrics for assessing energy-aware optimisation, known as Energy-Delay Sum and Energy-Delay Distance [34]. We then further extend our POSE model to include a new formulation known as System Summary POSE. System Summary POSE allows us to reason about the scope an entire system has for energy-aware optimisations independently of any particular code being run. Work completed while S. I. Roberts was registered at the University of Warwick. This research was funded in part by a UK Technology Strategy Board project, number 131197 (Energy-Efficiency Tools for High-Performance Multi-and Many-core Applications), which supported this collaboration between the University of Warwick and Allinea Software Ltd. (now part of Arm Ltd.). Professor Stephen Jarvis is an AWE William Penney Fellow. Authors’ addresses: S. I. Roberts, Development Solutions Group, Arm Ltd. UK; email:; S. A. Wright, Department of Computer Science, University of York, UK; email:; S. A. Fahmy, School of Engineering, University of Warwick, UK; email:; S. A. Jarvis, Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, UK; email: Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than the author(s) must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from © 2019 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM. 1544-3566/2019/06-ART21

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM.


  • Energy-aware computing
  • Energy-efficiency
  • Power optimisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture


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