The MerR family of transcriptional regulators

Nigel Brown, Jivko Stoyanov, Stephen Kidd, Jonathan Hobman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

485 Citations (Scopus)


The MerR family is a group of transcriptional activators with similar N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA binding regions and C-terminal effector binding regions that are specific to the effector recognised. The signature of the family is amino acid similarity in the first 100 amino acids, including a helix-turn-helix motif followed by a coiled-coil region. With increasing recognition of members of this class over the last decade, particularly with the advent of rapid bacterial genome sequencing, MerR-like regulators have been found in a wide range of bacterial genera, but not yet in archaea or eukaryotes. The few MerR-like regulators that have been studied experimentally have been shown to activate suboptimal sigma(70)-dependent promoters, in which the spacing between the -35 and -10 elements recognised by the sigma factor is greater than the optimal 17+/-1 bp. Activation of transcription is through protein-dependent DNA distortion. The majority of regulators in the family respond to environmental stimuli, such as oxidative stress, heavy metals or antibiotics. A subgroup of the family activates transcription in response to metal ions. This subgroup shows sequence similarity in the C-terminal effector binding region as well as in the N-terminal region, but it is not yet clear how metal discrimination occurs. This subgroup of MerR family regulators includes MerR itself and may have evolved to generate a variety of specific metal-responsive regulators by fine-tuning the sites of metal recognition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-163
Number of pages19
JournalFEMS Microbiology Reviews
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2003


  • heavy metal
  • metal induction
  • DNA distortion
  • gene expression
  • activator


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