The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: The impact of dry and wet cyclic pre-loading on bi-axial flexure strength

AR Curtis, William Palin, GJP Fleming, Adrian Shortall, Peter Marquis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

92 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives, To determine the influence of nano-sized filler particles and agglomerates of nanoparticles ('nanoclusters') in resin-based composite (RBC) materials on the bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) following cyclic pre-loading and storage in a 'dry' or 'wet' environment. Method. Seven commercially available RBC restoratives, Heliomolar (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Z100 MP Restorative, Filtek (TM) Z250, Filtek (TM) Supreme (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) in Body (FSB) and Translucent (FST) shades, Grandio and Grandio Flow (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), containing differing filler particle types and morphologies were investigated. Specimens were pre-loaded at 20, 50 or 100 N for 2000 cycles and stored in a 'dry' or 'wet' environment prior to BFS testing. Results. A general linear model analysis of variance highlighted a reduction in the BFS following pre-loading, however, individual RBC materials responded differently The RBCs containing agglomerated nano-sized particles or 'nanoclusters' (Filtek (TM) Supreme) demonstrated distinctive and unique patterns of response to pre-loading. Cyclic pre-loading at 20 and SON significantly increased the Weibull modulus of both FSB (8.53 +/- 1.91 and 10.23 +/- 2.29) and FST (16.89 +/- 3.78 and 10.91 +/- 2.45) compared with FSB and FST control (no pre-cyclic load) specimens (5.98 +/- 1.34 and 7.99 1.78, respectively). BFS of FSB and FST was maintained or significantly increased compared with the other materials following 20 and 50 N cyclic pre-load (P <0.05). Significance, The 'nanoclusters' provided a distinct reinforcing mechanism compared with the microhybrid, microfill or nanohybrid RBC systems resulting in significant improvements to the strength and reliability, irrespective of the environmental storage and testing conditions. Silane infiltration within interstices of the nanoclusters may modify the response to pre-loading induced stress, thereby enhancing damage tolerance and providing the potential for improved clinical performance. (c) 2008 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)188-197
Number of pages10
JournalDental Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2009


  • Nanofillers
  • Cyclic fatigue
  • Bi-axial flexure strength
  • Resin-based composite


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