The massive transformation in Ti-Al alloys: Mechanistic observations

X. D. Zhang*, S. Godfrey, M. Weaver, M. Strangwood, P. Threadgill, M. J. Kaufman, M. H. Loretto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


The massive α→γm transformation, as observed using analytical transmission electron microscopy, in Ti-49Al, Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Mn, Ti-55Al-25Ta and Ti-50Al-20Ta alloys is described. Conventional solution heating and quenching experiments have been combined with the more rapid quenching possible using electron beam melting in order to provide further insight into the early stages of the transformation in these alloys. It is shown that the γ develops first at grain boundaries as lamellae in one of the grains and that these lamellae intersect and spread into the adjacent grain in a massive manner. Consequently, there is no orientation relationship between the massive gamma (γm) and the grain being consumed whereas there is the expected relation between the γm and the first grain which is inherited from the lamellae. It is further shown that the γm grows as an f.c.c. phase after initially growing with the L10 structure. Furthermore, it is shown that the massive f.c.c. phase then orders to the Ll0 structure producing APDB-like defects which are actually thin 90° domains separating adjacent domains that have the same orientation yet are out of phase. The advancing γm interface tends to facet parallel either to one of its four {111} planes or to the basal plane in the grain being consumed by impinging on existing γ lamellae. Thin microtwins and α2 platelets then form in the γm presumably due, respectively, to transformation stresses and supersaturation of the γm with titanium for alloys containing ∼48% Al; indeed, there is a local depletion in aluminium across the α2 platelets as determined using fine probe microanalysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3723-3734
Number of pages12
JournalActa Materialia
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys


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