The interaction between lid diameter, height and shape on wrist torque exertion in younger and older adults

Joanne Crawford, E Wanibe, Uppinangady Nayak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)


The following study investigated wrist torque strength measurements of a group of younger and older adults. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of shape, diameter and height of lid on wrist torque opening strength. Forty participants took part in the study in four groups, younger males and females and older males and females. Data were collected for 12 test pieces. Anthropometric data were also obtained for stature, weight, hand breadth, hand length, chuck grip force, grip force, lateral grip force and pinch grip force. The analysis of the wrist torque strength measurements found that participants could exert greater force with square test pieces compared to circular test pieces of the same diameter. Examination of the circular test pieces found that as diameter and height increased, so did torque exertion data for the test pieces between 20 mm and 50 mm diameter. The surface area of the test pieces was found to be highly correlated with the level of torque exertion, thus a linear model was developed to describe this relationship. The model could be used to predict maximal torque closure levels for use in the packaging industry. The anthropometric data revealed that as height, weight, hand length and hand breadth increased, there was a correlation with the levels of torque exerted. Future research needs to further examine the relationship between surface area and torque exerted and the design of spherical lids to increase the contact area between the hand and the lid.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)922-933
Number of pages12
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2002


  • packaging
  • wrist torque strength
  • ageing


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